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Thursday, November 29, 2007

GS Series A ICS (P) 2007

1. Match

Town Rivers

a. Betul Indravati


Ujjain Shipra

Ans B .


Famous Rivers of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh has numerous rivers, the important ones being Narmada, Chambal, Betwa, Shipra, Sone, Mahanadi, Indrawati and Tapti. All these rivers have played a considerable role in making Madhya Pradesh what it is today – be it the cities, the culture, or the ravines.

¤ Narmada River

The Narmada gained national prominence in the recent past when the Indian government proposed to build a dam on the river (seeAmarkantak – Narmada & Sone: Perennial Streams of Culture under Madhya Pradesh). The Narmada is an important river as it happens to be the most sacred of the five holy rivers of India; the other four being Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari and Kaveri. It is believed that a dip in any of these five rivers washes ones sins away. According to a legend, the river Ganga is polluted by millions of people bathing in it. To cleanse herself, Ganga acquires the form of a black cow and comes to the Narmada to bathe in its holy waters.

¤ Narmada - The Lifeline of Madhya Pradesh

Earlier known as Reva and Mahakalasuta, the Narmada is also referred to as the lifeline of Madhya Pradesh. Originating in Amarkantak, the highest peak of the Vindhya Range, it flows westward through Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat before finally ending its journey in the Gulf of Khambat.
The 1300km long Narmada is the fifth longest river in India, and the oldest. Kalidasa, the 4th century poet, writes about the Narmada in his love poem, Meghdoota, which is about a yaksha (tree spirit) who was banished to Madhya Pradesh. The yaksha sent messages to his beloved in the Himalayas through the clouds.

Two of the most well-known historical cities along the banks of the Narmada are Mahismati (present Maheshwar) and Tripuri (present Tewar in Jabalpur district). Archaeological findings in these regions indicate that human habitation existed here in very ancient times.

There are many fables about the origin of the Narmada. According to one of them, once, Lord Shiva, the Destroyer of the Universe, meditated so hard that he started perspiring. Shiva's sweat accumulated in a tank and started flowing in the form of a river – the Narmada. Another legend has it that two teardrops that fell from the eyes of Lord Brahma, the Creator of the Universe, yielded two rivers – the Narmada and the Sone.

¤ Chambal River

The 965km long Chambal is the largest and most important river of western MP. This river was referred to as Punya in the 4th century b.c. epic, the Mahabharata, and as Charmanavati in the Puranas which are ancient Hindu texts.It is said that King Ranti Dev (one of the successors of King Bharata, Lord Rama's brother) had sacrificed cows to honour his guests. The blood that oozed out of the cows' charmas (skin) turned into a river named Charmanavati.

The river Chambal originates from the Janapav Mountain in the Vindhya Range, and flows northeast through Ujjain, Ratlam and Mandsaur, before entering Rajasthan. It reenters Madhya Pradesh after meandering through parts of Rajasthan and touches Moraina and Bhind. Here are the infamous Chambal Ravines that have been and still are the safest refuge for dacoits.

¤ Tapti/Tapi River

Apart from the Narmada, the Tapti is the only river that flows westward and falls into the Arabian Sea, in the Gulf of Khambat, to be precise. The 724km long Tapti is agriculturally very important as it drains an area of over 65,145sq km spread over Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. This river originates at a height of 762m in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh (to the south of the Satpura Range). The Tapti journeys almost parallel to the Narmada, though it is much shorter in length than the Narmada and has a smaller catchment area.

According to the Puranas, ancient Hindu texts, , the Tapti is the daughter of the Sun god, Surya, who created her to save himself from his own intense heat. Tapti is also known as Tapi (taken from the Sanskrit word taap, which means heat). In the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, it is mentioned that Tapti had married Sanvaran, a legendary hero of the Moon Dynasty. They had a son called Kuru, from whom the Kuru Dynasty started.

¤ Shipra River

The Shipra starts her journey in the Vindhya Range from a hill called Kokri Tekdi situated at a distance of 11km from Ujjain. This river is 195km long, out of which 93km flow through Ujjain. It then touches Ratlam and Mandsaur, before joining the river Chambal. The main tributaries of Shipra are Khan and Gambhir.

The Shipra has been mentioned not only in ancient Hindu texts, like the Puranas, but in Buddhist and Jain scriptures as well. Legend has it that once Lord Shiva, the Destroyer of the Universe, went begging, using the skull of Lord Brahma, the Creator of the Universe, as a begging bowl. Nowhere in the three worlds did he manage to get any alms. Ultimately, he went to Vaikunth, or the seat of Lord Vishnu, and asked Lord Vishnu for alms. In return, Lord Vishnu showed Lord Shiva his index finger, which enraged the latter. Lord Shiva took out his trishul, or trident, and cut Lord Vishnu's fingers. The Preserver's fingers began to bleed profusely, and the blood accumulated in Brahma's skull and soon overflowed from it. The flow became a stream and finally a river – the Shipra. The Puranas, or ancient Hindu texts, also suggest that the Shipra originated from the heart of Varaha, Lord Vishnu's incarnation as a boar. Also on the banks of the Shipra is Sage Sandipani's ashram, or hermitage where the blue god, Krishna, Lord Vishnu's eighth incarnation, had studied

2. Consider ...


ii. Gurupudswamy

Ans B (ii only)


Government of India

Ministry of Labour and Employment

National Child Labour Project

National Child Labour Projects (NCLP)

This is the major scheme for the rehabilitation of child labour. Under the scheme, Project Societies at the district level are fully funded for opening up of special school/Rehabilitation Centres for the rehabilitation of child labour.

The special schools/Rehabilitation Centres provide non-formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition, stipend etc. to children withdrawn from employment.

The child workers identified in the survey are put in the special schools and provided the following facilities:

a) Non-formal/formal education

b) Skilled/craft training

c) Supplementary nutrition @ Rs. 5/- per child per day

d) Stipend @ Rs. 100/- per child per month

e) Health care facilities through a doctor appointed for a group of 20 schools.

The NCLP Scheme started in 1988. Till 9th Plan 100 Projects were sanctioned for covering about 2.11 lakh children in 13 States.

Under the Scheme 4002 schools has been sanctioned in 100 NCLPs during the Ninth Plan and it is expected to increase to 10,000 schools during the 10th Plan. So far 4,00,200 working children have been covered under the scheme. About 3.08 lakh children have been mainstreamed into formal education system so far.

The Scheme has been expanded to 150 districts more in the 10 th Plan, thereby covering a total of 250 districts in the country under the NCLP Scheme. On 14.1.2004, 50 new NCLPs were launched in a function held in Vigyan Bhawan.

* On the basis of census figures of 2001, another new 100 districts have been identified for setting up of NCLPs during the Tenth Plan.


i. Writer list ii Books

A. VS Naipaul 1. The siege of krishnapur


D. JG Farell . 4. Staying On

Ans A (A2 B3 C4 D1)

VS Naipaul

Selected works:

  • THE MYSTIC MASSEUR, 1957 - Täysinoppinut hieroja (suom. Seppo Loponen) - film 2001, dir. by Ismail Merchant, screenplay by Caryl Phillips, starring Aasif Mandvi, Om Puri, Ayesha Dharker, James Fox
  • MIGUEL STREET, 1959 - Miguel-kadun väkeä (suom. Seppo Loponen)
  • A HOUSE FOR MR BISWAS, 1961 - Talo mr Biswasille (suom. Seppo Loponen)
  • THE MIMIC MEN, 1967 - Vallan hinta (suom. Paavo Lehtonen)
  • IN A FREE STATE, 1971 - Vapaassa maassa (suom. Sakari Ahlbäck)
  • GUERILLAS, 1975 - Gerillat (suom. Seppo Loponen)
  • A BEND IN THE RIVER, 1979 - Joki tekee mutkan (suom. Seppo Loponen)

4. The song " Amar shonar bangla" ...written by

Ans D ( tagore)

Amar Shonar Bangla

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Amar Shonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal) (Bangla:???? ????? ?????) is a song written and composed by the poet Rabindranath Tagore. The word shonar literally means 'made of gold', but in the song shonar Bangla may be interpreted to either express the preciousness of Bengal or a reference to the colour of paddy fields before harvest. The song was written in 1906 during the period of Bangabhanga ( Bôngobhôngo - 1905 Partition of Bengal) - when Bengal was divided in two halves by the British government based on religion. This song, along with a host of others, was written to rekindle the unified spirit of Bengal.

It is said that the music of this song was inspired by the Baul singer Gagan Harkara's song "Kothay Pabo Tare". ( Bangla:?????? ???? ????)

The first 10 lines of this song constitute the national anthem of Bangladesh. It was adopted in 1972 after the independence of Bangladesh. The English translation was done by Syed Ali Ahsan.

5. CT SCAn

Ans A (X rays)

6.Article 360

i proclamation of financial emergency

ii ....judges of SC and HC

Ans A (i only)

7. Contitutional Amendment ...Council of Ministers

Ans. 91st (A)

8. Consider the following.

i. A0 size = 0.5 m2

ii. A4 size .. 1/8th

Ans D


ISO and JIS Standard Paper Sizes
Trim sizes in mm; Width precedes height; Press-sheet
sizes accommodate 3 mm head, foot, and fore-edge trim margins;
To convert to approximate decimal inches, divide measures by 25.4, or see
Expanded Tables of North American and UK/EU Paper Sizes
and Japanese Papers for Printing for appropriate tables.

ISO & JIS A Sizes


JIS B Sizes

ISO C Sizes


1682 x 2378


2000 x 2828

(postcards; folders;
envelopes for
ISO A sizes)


1189 x 1682


1414 x 2000


841 x 1189


1000 x 1414


1030 x 1456


917 x 1297


594 x 841


707 x 1000


728 x 1030


648 x 917


420 x 594


500 x 707


515 x 728


458 x 648


297 x 420


353 x 500


364 x 515


324 x 458


210 x 297


250 x 353


257 x 364


229 x 324


148 x 210


176 x 250


182 x 257


162 x 229


105 x 148


125 x 176


128 x 182


114 x 162


74 x 105


88 x 125


91 x 128


81 x 114


52 x 74


62 x 88


64 x 91


57 x 81


37 x 52


44 x 62


45 x 64


40 x 57


26 x 37


31 x 44


32 x 45


28 x 40

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9. Consider

i. Chairman of Public Account Committee

ii. The committee on Public accounts,

Ans a (i only)



The Public Accounts Committee consists of fifteen Members elected by Lok Sabha every year from amongst its members according to the principle of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. Seven members of Rajya Sabha elected by that House in like manner are associated with the Committee. This system of election ensures that each Party/Group is represented on the Committee in proportion to its respective strength in the two Houses.

Process of Election

In April each year a motion is moved in Lok Sabha by the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs or Chairman of the Committee, if in office, calling upon members of the House to elect from amongst themselves 15 members to the Public Accounts Committee. After the motion is adopted, a programme, fixing the dates for filing the nominations/withdrawal of candidatures and the election, if necessary, is notified in Lok Sabha Bulletin Part-II. On receipt of nominations, a list of persons who have filed nomination papers is put up on the Notice Boards. In case the number of members nominated is equal to the number of members to be elected, then, after expiry of time for withdrawal of candidatures, the members nominated are declared elected and the result published in Bulletin Part-II. If the number of members nominated after withdrawals is more than number of members to be elected, election is held on the stipulated date and result of election published in Bulletin Part-II.

Association of Members of Rajya Sabha

Another motion is moved in Lok Sabha recommending to Rajya Sabha to nominate seven members of that House for being associated with the Committee. After adoption, the motion is transmitted to Rajya Sabha through a Message. Rajya Sabha holds election of members to the Committee and the names of members elected are communicated to Lok Sabha.

Appointment of Chairman

The Chairman of the Committee is appointed by the Speaker from amongst the members of Lok Sabha elected to the Committee.

As a convention, starting from the Public Accounts Committee of 1967-68, a member of the Committee belonging to the main opposition party/group in the House is appointed as the Chairman of the Committee.

Minister not to be Member of Committee

A Minister is not eligible to be elected as a member of the Committee and if a member, after his election to the Committee, is appointed as a Minister, he ceases to be a member of the Committee from the date of such appointment.

Term of Office

The term of office of the members of the Committee is one year.

Association of Members with Government Committees

A member, on his election to the Committee, has to communicate to the office of the Committee, the particulars regarding the various Committees appointed by Government with which he is associated, for being placed before the Speaker. Where the Speaker considers it inappropriate that a member should continue to serve on the Government Committee, the member is required to resign membership of the Committee constituted by Government. Where the Speaker permits a member to continue to hold membership of Government Committee, he may require that the report of the Government Committee shall be placed before the Committee on Public Accounts for such comments as the latter Committee may deem fit to make, before it is presented to Government. Whenever the Chairman or any member of the Committee on Public Accounts is invited to accept membership of any Committee constituted by Government, the matter is likewise to be placed before the Speaker before the appointment is accepted.

Functions of the Committee

The Public Accounts Committee examines the accounts showing the appropriation of the sums granted by Parliament to meet the expenditure of the Government of India, the Annual Finance Accounts of the Government of India and such other accounts laid before the House as the Committee may think fit. Apart from the Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India on Appropriation Accounts of the Union Government, the Committee also examines the various Audit Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General on revenue receipts, expenditure by various Ministries/ Departments of Government and accounts of autonomous bodies. The Committee, however, does not examine the accounts relating to such public undertakings as are allotted to the Committee on Public Undertakings.

While scrutinising the Appropriation Accounts of the Government of India and the Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General thereon, it is the duty of the Committee to satisfy itself—

— that the moneys shown in the accounts as having been disbursed were legally available for and applicable to the service or purpose to which they have been applied or charged;

— that the expenditure conforms to the authority which governs it; and

— that every re-appropriation has been made in accordance with the provisions made in this behalf under rules framed by competent authority.

An important function of the Committee is to ascertain that money granted by Parliament has been spent by Government "within the scope of the demand". The functions of the Committee extend "beyond the formality of expenditure to its wisdom, faithfulness and economy". The Committee thus examines cases involving losses, nugatory expenditure and financial irregularities.

While scrutinising the Reports of Comptroller and Auditor General on Revenue Receipts, the Committee examines various aspects of Government's tax administration. The Committee, thus, examines cases involving under-assessments, tax-evasion, non-levy of duties, mis-classifications etc., identifies loopholes in the taxation laws and procedures and make recommendations in order to check leakage of revenue.

Regularisation of Excess Expenditure

If any money has been spent on a service in excess of the amount granted by the House for the purpose, the Committee examines the same with reference to the facts of each case, the circumstances leading to such an excess and make such recommendations as it may deem fit. Such excesses are thereafter required to be brought up before the House by Government for regularisation in the manner envisaged in article 115 of the Constitution. In order to facilitate speedy regularisation of such expenditure by Parliament, the Committee presents a consolidated report relating to all Ministries/Departments expeditiously in advance of other reports.

Selection of Subject for Examination

As the work of the Committee is normally confined to the various matters referred to in the Audit Reports, and Appropriation Accounts, its work normally starts after the Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General on the accounts of the Government are laid on the Table of the House. As soon as the Committee for a year is constituted, it selects paragraphs from those reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General were presented by for examination during its term of office.

Assistance by Comptroller and Auditor General

The Committee is assisted by the Comptroller and Auditor General in the examination of Accounts and Audit Reports.

Constitution of Working Groups/Sub-Committees

A number of Working Groups/Sub-Committees are constituted by the Chairman from amongst the members of the Committee for detailed examination of the subjects selected by the Committee and for considering procedural matters. A Sub-Committee is also constituted for scrutiny of action taken by Government on the recommendations contained in the previous reports of the Committee.

Calling for Information from Government

The Committee calls for, in the first instance, advance information from the Ministries/Departments in regard to subjects selected by it for examination.

Study Tours

The Committee undertakes on the spot study tours/visits of various Departments/Establishments connected with the subjects taken up for examination.

For the purpose, members of the Committee are divided into study groups. Each study tour is undertaken with the specific approval of the Speaker.

Evidence of Officials

The Committee later takes oral evidence of the representatives of the Ministries/Departments concerned with the subjects under examination.

Ministers not called before Committee

A Minister is not called before the Committee either to give evidence or for consultation in connection with the examination of Accounts by the Committee. The Chairman of the Committee may, however, when considered necessary but after its deliberations are concluded, have an informal talk with the Minister concerned to apprise him of (a) any matters of policy laid down by the Ministry with which the Committee does not fully agree; and (b) any matters of secret and confidential nature which the Committee would not like to bring on record in its report.

Report and Minutes

The conclusions of the Committee on a subject are contained in its Report, which, after its adoption by the Committee, is presented by the Chairman to the Lok Sabha. Minutes of the sittings of the Committee form Part II of the Report. A copy of the Report is also laid on the Table of Rajya Sabha. Generally, the Reports of the Committee are adopted by consensus among members. Accordingly, there is no system of appending minute of dissent to the Report.

Action Taken on Reports

After presentation to the Lok Sabha, the Report is forwarded to the Ministry or Department concerned which is required to take action on the recommendations and conclusions contained in the Report and furnish action taken replies thereon within six months.

Action taken notes received from the Ministries/ Departments are examined by the Action Taken Sub- Committee and Action Taken Reports of the Committee are presented to the House. A copy of the Report is also laid on the Table of Rajya Sabha.

Statements of action taken on Action Taken Reports

Replies received from Government in respect of recommendations contained in the Action Taken Reports are also laid on the Table of Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha in the form of Statements.

[The constitution and working of the Public Accounts Committee is governed by Rules 253 to 286 and 308 to 309 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and Directions 48 to 73, 96A, 97, 97A, 99 and 100 of the Directions by the Speaker, Lok Sabha.]

10.Consider the following

1. Red Panda ...western himalayas

ii. Slow Loris .....North East

And d (Neither)


Red Panda
[Wild Animals in India]

The Red Panda, also called the "Fire Cat," is a tree dwelling mammal, which looks like a raccoon, with its bushy tail and white and black markings across its face. Characterized by its red fur, the Red Panda looks very different from its larger relative the Giant Panda. There are two species of Red Panda. One subspecies is found only in China, while the subspecies found in India is also found in parts of Southern China.

Zoological name: Ailurus fulgens

Range: Red Pandas are found in the sub Himalayan states of North East India - Sikkim, West Bengal and Arunachal Pradesh. The Red Panda's range extends across Nepal, Bhutan, China, Laos and Myanmar. It is found in areas within an altitude of 1500 to 4000 m.

Estimated population: The Red Panda is a rare animal and because of its reclusive arboreal nature and the difficult terrain in which it lives, accurate estimates of the Red Panda population are hard to arrive at. It is estimated that there are about 2,500 Red Pandas left in the wild.

Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang )

This species has dark rings around the eyes and a white nose, which make it stand out. These primates have a special reticulum in their hands and feet which remove lactic acid build up allowing them to grasp with their hands and feet for hours. The thumb and the big toe are perpendicular to the other digits (Nowak, 1999). In females the vulva is closed until estrus. The saliva of this species is toxic and is used in defense against predators (Alterman, 1995). Mothers will spread the toxin on their infants with the use of the toothcomb (Alterman, 1995). The nail on the second digit of each foot is shaped more like a claw and is used in grooming. The toilet claw is usually licked right after grooming (Tenaza et al., 1969). A brown ring circles the eyes of the slow loris (Choudhury, 1992). The pelage of the face is pale brown to whitish in color with dark markings (Choudhury, 1992). The head and the shoulders may have a color that is gray, creamy or dull silvery white (Choudhury, 1992). The dorsal side is reddish brown to gray in color (Choudhury, 1992). The flanks and rump of this species are either buff, rusty, or ashy-gray (Choudhury, 1992). There is a brown dorsal stripe that extends from the crown down to the back (Choudhury, 1992). The average body mass for an adult male slow loris is around 670 grams and for the female it is around 626 grams (Barrett, 1984). Females have two pairs of mammae, one pectoral and one in the lower thoracic area (Izard et al., 1988).

This species is found in the following countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. In India the slow loris is found in the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya (Choudhury, 1992). In the Philippines this species is found on the islands of Simunul, Bongao, Sanga Sanga, and Tawitawi, where Tawitawi represents this species most eastern most limit (Fooden, 1991). It lives in the main canopy of the forest. The slow loris prefers the edge habitat of the forest, possibly because the edge has more supports that may increase foraging efficiency (Johns, 1986). In India this species is found in tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen, tropical mixed deciduous, and sub-tropical broadleaf type forests (Choudhury, 1992).

11.The first Factory Act

Ans C (rippon)

12. Galileo Project

Ans D.


Galileo positioning system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For help on how to include geographic coordinates in Wikipedia, see: Wikipedia:WikiProject Geographical coordinates

This article contains information about a scheduled or expected future product.
It may contain preliminary information that does not reflect the final version of the product.

The Galileo positioning system, referred to simply as Galileo, is a proposed Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Satellite Navigation Industries for the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) as an alternative to the United States operated Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS. Galileo Operating Company, the concession holder and private consortium that was to run Galileo, was to have its main headquarters in Toulouse, France, with some specialized command centers also located in Munich (performance control), London (system operations), Rome (performance control), and Madrid (Safety of Life signals and redundancy control).[1] It was reported on 18 May 2007 that, at the recommendation of Transport Commissioner Jacques Barrot , the EU will take direct control of the Galileo project from the private sector.[2]

Galileo is tasked with multiple objectives including the following: to provide a higher precision to all users than is currently available through GPS or GLONASS, to improve availability of positioning services at higher latitudes, and to provide an independent positioning system upon which European nations can rely even in times of war or political disagreement. The current project plan has the system as operational by 2011–12, three or four years later than originally anticipated.

It is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. The Galileo positioning system is referred to as "Galileo" instead of as the abbreviation "GPS" to distinguish it from the existing United States system

13. Suspension from Commonwealth following Coup

Ans C ( Fiji)

Fiji military coup is denounced

Cmdr Bainimarama said the government was corrupt

The military coup in Fiji has brought international condemnation, with Commonwealth nations saying suspension from the group is highly likely.

14. Shah Garh area ( jaisalmer)

Ans A( gas)


Huge gas, oil reserves found in Rajasthan

Jaipur, January 31
Huge oil and gas reserves have been discovered in four districts of Rajasthan, bordering Pakistan, the state government announced today.

Essar, along with a Polish oil and gas company, is sinking wells in the Nanuwala area of Sriganganagar district while Oil India Ltd has entered into an agreement with a Venezuelan company to exploit the 14.60- million-tonne oil and 33.2-million-tonne bitumen reserves it discovered near Bagewala in Jaisalmer district.

Phoenic Overseas has been allotted a block in the Shahgarh area of Jaisalmer district, an official note stated. The ONGC and Indian Oil have also discovered huge reserves of gas in 57 wells in the Jaisalmer basin.

Lignite reserves of about 10 billion tonnes, discovered at depths of 200-500 metres in Barmer and Bikaner districts, could be used in energy production, it stated. UNI

15.Small Intestine


Small intestine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Small intestine

Diagram showing the small intestine


intestinum tenue


subject #248 1168


celiac ganglia, vagus [1]





In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. It is where the vast majority of digestion takes place.

Size and sections

In humans over 5 years old it is approximately 7 m (21 ft) long and can vary from 4-7 m (13.12-22.97 ft).

It is divided into three structural parts:

16. Bahubivah

Ans B. iswar chandra

17.Hormone regulating calcium

Ans C (PTH)


Ans D(Trachea)

19.Fertilisation sites

Ans b

20.vomiting and swallowing centre

Ans C( medulla)


To achieve the complex task of coordinating the activity of several dozen paired muscle groups, swallowing (deglutition) requires neural control mechanisms involving levels of the neuraxis extending from the spinal cord to the cortex. The brainstem has long been thought to harbor the central network generating the basic spatiotemporal pattern of deglutitive neuromuscular activity. As illustrated by the work of Bidder,1 Mosso,2 and Miller and Sherrington, 3 much of the pioneering research on swallowing dealt with its properties as a brainstem reflex effecting bolus transport through the upper alimentary tract, along with protection of the airway and the middle ear. This view lingers on in clinical thinking to this day, but has undergone substantial evolution in contemporary experimental work.

21 Function Of liver

Ans b (Urea Cycle)

22. upgraded Self Defence agency

Ans B (japan)

Japan establishes first postwar defence ministry

By John Chan
19 January 2007

Use this version to print | Send this link by email | Email the author

In a step towards the revival of Japanese militarism, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) government on January 9 set up the country's first defence ministry since the end of World War II. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and the new defence minister, Fumio Kyuma, attended the official ceremony to rename the previous defence agency headquarters as the new defence ministry.

Abe declared in his speech that he was proud to be the Japanese leader to reestablish the defence ministry. "This is a big step towards building a new nation after emerging from the postwar regime," he said. While the change of name may appear to be minor, it is part of Abe's agenda to end the restrictions placed on Japan's use of the military following the end of World War II.

Under the pacifist clause of its postwar constitution, Japan renounced war and the use of military force in settling international disputes. Successive postwar governments skirted around the clause by designating Japan's substantial military as "self-defence forces". Now, however, Abe plans to rewrite the constitution so as to make Japan a "normal nation"—that is, able to use military aggression to further national interests.

23 FIFA World Player Of The year Award 2006

Ans B(Fabio)

FIFA World Player of the Year

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The FIFA World Player of the Year is a football award given annually to the male and female player who are thought to be the best in the world, based on votes by coaches and captains of international teams. In a voting system based on a type of a Borda count, each coach gets three votes, worth five points, three points and one point, and the winners are ordered based on total number of points. The award started in 1991 for men and 2001 for women.

The award's youngest winner, male or female, is Ronaldo, who won at the age of 20 in 1996. He won it again in 1997. Ronaldo, Ronaldinho, Mia Hamm and Birgit Prinz are the only players to have won twice in a row. Ronaldo, Zinedine Zidane and Prinz are the only three-time winners. The oldest winner is Fabio Cannavaro who won in 2006 at age 33. The oldest female winner is Hamm, who won in 2002 at age 30, and the youngest female winner is Marta, who won in 2006 at age 20 (but was seven months older than was Ronaldo in 1996).

24 Digestive enzyme not in human beings

Ans C (Ptylin)

25.Which of the following type oflight ....plants

Ans A( Violet and orange)

Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments | Back to Top

A pigment is any substance that absorbs light. The color of the pigment comes from the wavelengths of light reflected (in other words, those not absorbed). Chlorophyll, the green pigment common to all photosynthetic cells, absorbs all wavelengths of visible light except green, which it reflects to be detected by our eyes. Black pigments absorb all of the wavelengths that strike them. White pigments/lighter colors reflect all or almost all of the energy striking them. Pigments have their own characteristic absorption spectra, the absorption pattern of a given pigment.

Absorption and transmission of different wavelengths of light by a hypothetical pigment. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates ( and WH Freeman (, used with permission.

Chlorophyll is a complex molecule. Several modifications of chlorophyll occur among plants and other photosynthetic organisms. All photosynthetic organisms (plants, certain protistans, prochlorobacteria, and cyanobacteria) have chlorophyll a. Accessory pigments absorb energy that chlorophyll a does not absorb. Accessory pigments include chlorophyll b (also c, d, and e in algae and protistans), xanthophylls, and carotenoids (such as beta-carotene). Chlorophyll a absorbs its energy from the Violet-Blue and Reddish orange-Red wavelengths, and little from the intermediate (Green-Yellow-Orange) wavelengths.

26. match

List i person list ii known as

i. Mather microsoft co founder....

iv pers seller ... Nobel prize

Ans C

27 Not correctly matched?

a. cosmic background explorer.....

d... atlantis

ans d


NASA's COBE (Cosmic Bakground Explorer) satellite was developed to measure the diffuxe infrared and cosmic microwave background radiation from the early Universe to the limits set by our astrophysical environment. COBE was launched on November 18, 1989 and carried three instruments: DIRBE (the Diffuse InfraRed Experiment) to search for and measure the cosmic infrared background radiation, DMR (Differential Microwave Radiometers) to map the cosmic microwave background radiation precisely, and FIRAS (Far-InfaRed Absolute Spectrophotometer) to compare the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation with that from a precise blackbody.

Data from the full four years of COBE observations continue to be analyzed. Student and post doctoral opportunities exist.

A large number of people were involved at various stages in the COBE project.

DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment)

DIRBE has mapped the absolute sky brightness in 10 wavelength bands ranging from 1.25 microns to 240 microns. These data contain the signal from the cosmic infrared background and the foreground emissions from extragalactic sources, our Galaxy, and dust and other sources in our solar system. Work is in progress on separating and modeling the varios components. Significantly improved limits on the cosmic infrared background exist and future progress is possible and likely. A significant amount of work involves study of the astrophysics of the interesting foreground sources. There is a very rich data base on the infrared emission from the Galaxy and the interplanetary dust.

Galactic plane emission: bands 1-5

Galactic plane emission: bands 6-10

DMR (Differential Microwave Radiomters)

The COBE DMR ( Smoot et al. 1992 ) has found anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background on all scales from the nominal beam size of 7-degrees up to the full sky at a typical level of one part in 100,000 to a few parts per million. These anisotropies are interpreted as imprints of the seeds that eventually grew under the influence of gravity to galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and clusters of clusters of galaxies. They also indicate that we should eventually expect to find even larger scale structures. They also give us a clue to how the Universe originated - i.e. how space and time and all the other contents of the Universe came into being. Two of the four years of the COBE DMR data have been released. Data processing of all four years are in progress and the full four year data were released in January 1996. The DMR team had a large number of memembers over the years in addition to those from the COBE science working group that participated.

DMR Schematic

CMB Fluctuations (2 years of data)

CMB Fluctuations (galaxy removed)

DMR Four Year DMR images of the Cosmic Microwave Background Fluctuations.

FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer)

FIRAS has shown that the cosmic microwave background spectrum matches that of a blackbody of temperature 2.726K with a precision of 0.03% of the peak intensity over a wavelength range 0.1 to 5 mm. Longer wavelength measurements, though not nearly as precise, conducted by Smoot's group at LBL and collaborators and by other groups, show that the CMB spectrum is well-described by a single temperature blackbody. See figure [attach Intensity and Temperature plots] of spectrum measurements. These measurements limit possible alternative models to the Big Bang extremely strongly and limit potential energy releases in the early Universe, typically to less than 0.1% to 0.01%.

More Information

Extensive information about the COBE mission, including much information about the three experiments on board, is available by clicking on more COBE information or through the NASA's NSSDC & Goddard Space Flight Center maintained COBE Home Page. More photographs related to and of COBE. NASA was responsibile for the development of the COBE satellite and mission operations. Scientific Guidance was provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

RELEASE: 06-402

NASA's Shuttle Atlantis Begins Mission to the Space Station

28. Consider

i. China ....SAARC

ii. India SCO

Ans B(2 only)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)



Kathmandu, Nepal


8 member states
6 observers



Secretary General

Lyonpo Chenkyab Dorji


December 8, 1985


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia. In terms of population, its sphere of influence is the largest of any regional organization: almost 1.5 billion people, the combined population of its member states. It was established on December 8, 1985 by India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan. In April 2007, at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.

[ edit] History

In the late 1970s, Bangladesh's president Ziaur Rahman proposed the creation of a trade bloc consisting of South Asian countries. The Bangladeshi proposal was accepted by India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka during a meeting held in Colombo in 1981. In August 1983, the leaders adopted the Declaration on South Asian Regional Cooperation during a summit which was held in New Delhi. The seven South Asian countries, which also included Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan , agreed on five areas of cooperation:

  • Agriculture and Rural Development
  • Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Meteorology
  • Health and Population Activities
  • Transport
  • Human Resource Development

Afghanistan was added to the regional grouping at the behest of India on November 13, 2005, [1] and became recognized as a full member on April 3, 2007.[2] With the addition of Afghanistan, the total number of member states was raised to eight (8). In April 2006, the United States of America and South Korea made formal requests to be granted observer status. The European Union has also indicated interest in being given observer status, and made a formal request for the same to the SAARC Council of Ministers meeting in July 2006.[3] [4] On August 2, 2006 the foreign ministers of the SAARC countries agreed in principle to grant observer status to the US, South Korea and the European Union. On 4 March 2007, Iran requested observer status. [5]

membership and Observerships SCO

Among other nations of the wider region, Mongolia became the first country to receive observer status at the 2004 Tashkent Summit. Pakistan , India and Iran received observer status at the 2005 SCO summit in Astana, Kazakhstan on July 5 , 2005. Mongolia, Pakistan, and Iran have since applied for full membership to the organization; India has not.

Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui once said that the SCO will not take in new members before its six members make serious studies. Russia's permanent representative in the SCO Secretariat Grigory Logninov has also claimed that the enlargement of the SCO is impeded by "an immature mechanism of admission of new members", while Secretary General Zhang Deguang argued that an overexpansion might hinder the intensification of the cooperation. [13]

In a series of meetings in February 2006 with Chinese officials and media, the President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf argued in favour of Pakistan's qualification to join the organization as a full member. China said that it would convey Pakistan's desire to all SCO member states. In turn, Musharraf was formally invited to the sixth summit of the SCO to take place in Shanghai in June 2006.[14] [15]

The SCO has also encouraged India to join the organization, saying that they would properly consider a membership application should it decide to join the group. [16] Russia has been said to support Pakistan's membership only if India joins at the same time; [17] given the disputes between the two nations, this scenario parallels the simultaneous entry of Greece and Turkey as members of NATO . So far, India has not made an official membership application, but has unofficially made its interest in joining known.

Belarus has also applied for observer status in the organization and has been promised Kazakhstan's support towards that goal. However, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov voiced doubt on the probability of Belarus' membership, saying that Belarus was a purely European country. [17][18]

29 .

From the Hindu Archives

Eminent theatre director Bhanu Bharti's presentations "Bapu" and "Samrat" mounted this past week failed to live up to expectations.

Vrinda Karandikar Marathi Poet and Litteratruer Got Sahitya Akademi Award

30. Three Identical Vessels….Vessel emtied First

Ans A (Vessel B because Mercury has the highest rho)

31. In the Latter Half of The Year 2006….Military Coup take place

Ans. Thailand C …The only country among options where coup occurred

32 match

List I list ii

Balco 1 Hirakud


Ans B(A2,B4,C1,D3)

Balco – Korba, Hindalco –Renukoot. (Refrence Khullar)

33.Which of following is in Bastar Region

a. Bandhav Garh…….

d. Indravati

Ans D

Indravati National Park, Chattisgarh

INDRAVATI NATIONAL PARK is well approachable from district head quarter JAGADALPUR[Bastar]. The village Kutrue entry point of the park is situated at the distance of 22.4 km. north from the Jagadalpur- Bhopalpattanam road. The Kutrue link road is at the distance of 145.6 km.from Jagadalpur. It is better if one has his own vehicle because it is 496 km. from the easily approachable rail head Raipur The Park is located between 18.510 to 51.190 North latitude and 80.160 to 80.440 East longitude.

It is legally declared as Sanctuary in 1975 having an area of 2273.58 sq.Km. The park exists on south and east of Indravati river from which it derives it's name. In the wild life map the park has special place being only home of viable population of Wild Buffalo [ Rare and endangered species in India ] in Central India & as alternative home for the swamp dear of Kanha National Park. The Park area gives shelter to the large variety of birds of which Hill Maina is the most important species available in this National Park.

33. which one the following highways…..Chattisgarh and orissa

Ans C (NH 6)

List of National Highways in India (by Highway Number)

The List of National Highways in India (by Highway Number) is a listing of Indian Highways sorted by the Highway number.




Length in State (km)

Total Length

NH 1

Delhi - Ambala - Jalandhar - Amritsar - Indo-Pak Border

Delhi(22),Haryana(180), Punjab(254)



Jalandhar - Madhopur - Jammu - Banihal - Srinagar - Baramula - Uri

Punjab(108), Himachal Pradesh(14), Jammu & Kashmir(541)



Batote - Doda - Kistwar - Symthan pass - Kkhanabal

Jammu & Kashmir(274)



Domel - Katra

Jammu & Kashmir(8)



Srinagar - Kargil - Leh

Jammu & Kashmir(422)


NH 2

Delhi - Mathura - Agra - Kanpur - Allahabad - Varanasi - Mohania - Barhi - Palsit - Baidyabati - Bara - Calcutta

Delhi(12), Haryana(74), Uttar Pradesh(752), Bihar(202), Jharkhand(190), West Bengal(235)



Sikandra - Bhognipur

Uttar Pradesh(25)


NH 3

Agra - Gwalior - Shivpuri - Indore - Dhule - Nasik - Thane - Mumbai

Uttar Pradesh(26), Rajasthan (32), Madhya Pradesh(712), Maharashtra(391)


NH 4

Junction with NH 3 near Thane - Pune - Belgaum - Hubli - Bangalore - Ranipet - Chennai

Maharashtra(371), Karnataka (658), Andhra Pradesh(83), Tamil Nadu(123)



Belgaum - Anmod - Ponda - Panaji

Karnataka(82), Goa(71)



Nhava Sheva - Kalamboli - Palspe



NH 5

Junction with NH 6 near Baharagora - Cuttack - Bhubaneswar - Vishakhapatnam - Vijayawada - Chennai

Orissa(488), Andhra Pradesh (1000), Tamil Nadu(45)



Junction with NH 5 near Haridaspur - Paradip Port



NH 6

Hajira - Dhule - Nagpur - Raipur - Sambalpur - Baharagora - Kolkatta

Maharashtra(813), Chattisgarh (314), Orissa(462), Jharkhand(22), West Bengal(161), Gujarat (177)


NH 7

Varanasi - Mangawan - Rewa - Jabalpur - Lakhnadon - Nagpur - Hyderabad - Kurnool - Bangalore - Krishnagiri - Salem - Dindigul - Madurai - Tirunelveli - Kanyakumari

Uttar Pradesh(128), Madhya Pradesh(504), Maharashtra(232), Andhra Pradesh(753), Karnataka(125), Tamil Nadu(627)


35 Appendix

Ans A

36 Consider

I Balaghat … diamond

ii. mahgawan ---manganese

Ans D(neither )


About balaghat Mines

May 16, 2001



The Minister for Steel, Shri Braja Kishore Tripathy, laid foundation stone of the New Production Shaft Winding Complex and Administrative Building at Balaghat Mine of Manganese Ore (India) Limited (MOIL) in Madhya Pradesh at a function presided over by the State Chief Minister Shri Digvijay Singh today. Shri Prahlad Singh Patel, Member of Parliament, Balaghat was also present as guest of honour.

About Majhgawan

Chronology :-

Majhgawan Diamond Pipe


Capt. Franklin discovered the Majhgawan diamond deposit


Established as Kimberlite pipe by Sinor


Preliminary investigation by GSI and IBM


Diamond Mining by M/s. Panna Diamond Mining Syndicate

Upto 1959

Taken over by NMDC


Approval of two Project Reports, one for Ramkheria graveldeposit for 11,500 carats and the other for Majhgawan pipe for 12,000 carats per annum.


Majhgawan Mine attained full capacity


Ramkheria mine closure


Mine and Plant upgraded for 15000 carats production


Mine and Plant upgraded for 18500 carats production


Mine and Plant upgraded for 40000 carats production


Installation of X-ray sorter


Mine and Plant upgraded for 84000 carats production

Jan.' 2001

Majhgawan Mine
The Majhgawan pipe is surrounded on all the sides by the Baghain sandstones of Kaimur series which belongs to the Vindhyan system. The diamond occurs in the Kimberlitic pipe, which is an intrusive into above formation. Kimberlite pipe in Majhgawan is elliptical in shape whose longer axis is 320 meters. Diamond occurs as disseminated form in kimberlite pipe. The distribution of diamond in the pipe is not homogeneous. The average incidence of diamond in the pipe is about 10 carats per hundred tonne of kimberlite.

37. which of the Following State has lowest density…

Ans C (arunachal Pradesh)



Arunachal Pradesh (Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains) is situated in the North-Eastern part of India with 83743 sq. kms area and has a long international border with Bhutan to the west (160 km), China to the north and north-east (1,080 km) and Myanmar to the east (440 km). It stretches from snow-capped mountains in the north to the plains of Brahmaputra valley in the south. Arunachal is the largest state area-wise in the north-east region, even larger than Assam which is the most populous. It is situated between latitude 26 ° 30' N and 29° 30 ' N and longitude 91° 30' E and 97 ° 30' E. Its main river are Siang, Kameng, Subansiri, Kamla, Siyum, Dibang, Lohit, Noa - Dihing, Kamlang, Tirap and important festivals are Mopin, Solung, Nyokum, Lossar, Si-Donyi, Boori-boot, Dree, Reh, Sipong Yong, Chalo-loku, Kshyatsowai, Tamladu, Sarok, Nichido, Sangken, Mopin, Oriah etc.


Arunachal Pradesh attained its statehood on 20th February 1987. It has 16 districts namely Tawang, West Kameng, East Kameng, Papumpare, Lower Subansiri, Upper Subansiri, East Siang, West Siang, Upper Siang, Dibang Valley, Lower Dibang Valley, Lohit, Changlang, Tirap, Kurung Kumey and Anjaw. It also possess 36 sub divisions, 69 blocks and 149 circles. Under the unicameral legislature system, it has 60 seats of legislative assembly. The state is represented in the Lok Sabha by two members and one member in the Rajya Sabha.


The population of Arunachal Pradesh is 1,097968 according to 2001 census and is scattered over 12 towns and 3862 villages. The State has the lowest density of 13 persons per sq. km. As against decadal growth rate of 21.54% at the national level, the population of the State has grown by 27% over the period 1991-2001. The sex ratio of Arunachal Pradesh at 893 females to 1000 males is lower than the national average of 933. Total literacy of the State rose to 44.24% from 41.59% in 1991. There are 20 major tribes and a number of sub-tribes inhabiting the area. Most of these communities are ethnically similar, having derived from and original common stock but their geographical isolation from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress and customs.

38. match

City River

Bankok 1. irrawady


D. yangon 4. Red River

Ans A

39. Consider,

i. Horse Latitude

ii. Horse latitude Low Pressure

Ans .C

40. Which one of the following River is longest

Ans A(Amazon)

Expl :Nile is the longest river but since it is not given amazon is the best choice

List of rivers by length

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

View of the Nile River, the longest in the world, from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt.

This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth. It includes river systems over 1,000 kilometers.



[ edit] Definition of length

Amazon River near Manaus

The length of a river is not always easy to calculate. It depends on the identification of the source, the identification of the mouth, and the precise measurement of the river length between source and mouth. As a result, the length measurements of many rivers are only approximations. In particular, there has for long been disagreement whether the Amazon or the Nile is the world's longest river.

The source of a river may be hard to determine because a river typically has many tributaries. Among the many sources, the one that is farthest away from the mouth is considered as the source of the river, thus giving a maximal river length. In practice, the tributary with the farthest source is not always the one given the name of the river. For example, the farthest source of the Mississippi River system is the source of the Jefferson River , a tributary of the Missouri River which in turn is a tributary of the Mississippi. However, a different (and shorter) tributary is identified as the Mississippi. When the river is measured from mouth to farthest source, it is called the Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson. Also, it is hard to state exactly where a river begins as very often rivers are formed by seasonal streams, swamps, or changing lakes. In this article, length means the length of the river system, including all tributaries.

The mouth of a river may be hard to determine in cases where the river has a large estuary that gradually widens and opens into the ocean; examples are the River Plate and the Saint Lawrence River . Some rivers do not have a mouth; instead they dwindle to very low water volume and eventually evaporate, or sink into an aquifer, or get diverted for agriculture. The exact point where these rivers end will vary seasonally.

The length of a river between source and mouth may be hard to determine because of a lack of precise maps. In these cases, the measured length of a river will depend on the scale of the map on which the measurement is based; in general, due to the fractal quality of a river, the larger the scale, the longer the resulting length measurement. This issue was discovered by Lewis Fry Richardson and also applies when measuring borders between countries and coastlines. Ideally, length measurements should be based on maps that are of a large enough scale to show the width of the river.

Even when precise maps are available, the length measurement is not always clear. A river may have multiple arms. It may depend on whether the center or the edge of the river is taken as reference point. It may not be clear how to measure the length through a lake: this may also vary by season. These points make it difficult, if not impossible, to get a precise measurement of the length of a river or stream.

[ edit] List of rivers longer than 1000 km

One should take the aforementioned discussion into account when using the data in the following table. For most rivers, different sources provide conflicting information on the length of a river system. The information in different sources is between parentheses.


Length (km)

Length (miles)

Drainage area (km²)

Average discharge (m³/s)


Countries in the drainage basin







Mediterranean Sea

Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt , Democratic Republic of the Congo







Atlantic Ocean

Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela


Mississippi - Missouri - Jefferson





Gulf of Mexico

United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)


(Chang Jiang)





East China Sea

P.R. China


Yenisei - Angara - Selenga





Kara Sea

Russia, Mongolia

41 Which river originates at Amarkantak

Ans C (narmada)

42 Most East ward City

Ans c

Expln Coordinates

Hyderabad : 17 deg 21' 56'' N , 78deg 28' 34'' E

Bhopal 23.6 N , 77 .36 E

Lucknow . 26.5 N , 80.5 E

Bangalore : 12 N, 77.56 E

43 Dalbergia

Ans d (Rosewood full name dalbergia sissoo)

44. four southern states AP ,Karnataka,Kerala, TN

Ans A (AP)

45 straits ..does a tunnel connecting UK and France

Ans C

Channel Tunnel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Map of the Channel Tunnel.

The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims' Way.

The Channel Tunnel (French: le tunnel sous la Manche ), or Chunnel, is a 51.5 km (31 mi) long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover, connecting Folkestone, Kent in England to Coquelles near Calais in northern France. A megaproject that saw several false starts, it was finally completed in 1994. It is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world, with the Seikan Tunnel in Japan being longer, but the undersea section of 39 km (24 miles) is the longest undersea tunnel in the world. It is operated by Eurotunnel.

46.i. The annual range ….pacific ocean

Ii The annual range…. Northern Hemispere than southern hemisphere

Ans B

47. The largest coral reef

Ans A

48 Gurushikhar peak

Ans A ( rajasthan) Highest Peak of Mt Abu

49. The story of Integration of Indian states

Ans D Vp menon

50 Jallian wall Bagh

Ans C. Row Latt Act

51 First Speaker of LS

Ans B (GV Mavlankar)

52. mahatama Ghandhi First satyagraha

Ans C

53. newspaper Shome Prakash

Ans D (SN Banerjee)

54. Ruler of States removed on oretext of Mis governance

Ans A (Awadh)

55..Last Europeans

Ans C (French)

56. I Robert Clive… Governor General of Bengal

ii. bentick … Governor General of India

ans B (2 only)


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